6 This Epistle affords a specimen of the highest wisdom as to the manner in which Christians ought to manage social affairs on more exalted principles.
1 Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, To Philemon our beloved friend and fellow laborer,
1. prisoner of Jesus Christ—one whom Christ’s cause has made a prisoner (compare “in the bonds of the Gospel,” (Phm 1:13). He does not call himself, as in other Epistles, “Paul an apostle,” as he is writing familiarly, not authoritatively. our … fellow labourer—in building up the Church at Colosse, while we were at Ephesus. See my Introduction to Colossians.
2 to the beloved Apphia, Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house:
2. Apphia—the Latin, “Appia”; either the wife or some close relative of Philemon. She and Archippus, if they had not belonged to his family, would not have been included with Philemon in the address of a letter on a domestic matter. Archippus—a minister of the Colossian Church (Col 4:17). fellow soldier—(2 Ti 2:3). church in thy house—In the absence of a regular church building, the houses of particular saints were used for that purpose. Observe Paul’s tact in associating with Philemon those associated by kindred or Christian brotherhood with his house, and not going beyond it.
3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
- 2 In addition to the appeal from personal friendship, Paul claims a hearing because of his sufferings as a prisoner for Christ. Timothy is identified with him, as in the letter to Colossae. Apphia is unknown. She may have been Philemon’s wife. Archippus is mentioned in Colossians 4:17. He may have been the leader of the church which was meeting in Philemon’s house, or possibly Philemon’s son.
Philemon’s Love and Faith
4 I thank my God, making mention of you always in my prayers,
4. always—joined by ALFORD with, “I thank my God.”
5 hearing of your love and faith which you have toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints,
5. Hearing—the ground of his thanksgiving. It is a delicate mark of authenticity, that he says “hearing” as to churches and persons whom he had not seen or then visited. Now Colosse, Philemon’s place of residence, he had never yet seen. Yet Phm 1:19 here implies that Philemon was his convert. Philemon, doubtless, was converted at Ephesus, or in some other place where he met Paul. love and faith—The theological order is first faith then love, the fruit of faith. But he purposely puts Philemon’s love in the first place, as it is to an act of love that he is exhorting him. toward … toward—different Greek words: “towards” … “unto.” Towards implies simply direction; unto, to the advantage of.
6 that the sharing of your faith may become effective by the acknowledgment of every good thing which is in you in Christ Jesus.
6. That—The aim of my thanksgiving and prayers for thee is, in order that the, &c. the communication of thy faith—the imparting of it and its fruits (namely, acts of love and beneficence: as Heb 13:16, “to communicate,” that is, to impart a share) to others; or, the liberality to others flowing from thy faith (so the Greek is translated, “liberal distribution,” 2 Co 9:13). effectual by—Greek, “in”; the element in which his liberality had place, that is, may be proved by acts in, &c. acknowledging—Greek, “the thorough knowledge,” that is, the experimental or practical recognition. of every good thing which is in you—The oldest manuscripts read, “which is in US,” that is, the practical recognition of every grace which is in us Christians, in so far as we realize the Christian character. In short, that thy faith may by acts be proved to be “a faith which worketh by love.” in Christ Jesus—rather as Greek, “unto Christ Jesus,” that is, to the glory of Christ Jesus. Two of the oldest manuscripts omit “Jesus.” This verse answers to Phm 1:5, “thy love and faith toward all saints”; Paul never ceases to mention him in his prayers, in order that his faith may still further show its power in his relation to others, by exhibiting every grace which is in Christians to the glory of Christ. Thus he paves the way for the request in behalf of Onesimus.
7 For we have great joy and consolation in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed by you, brother.
7. For—a reason for the prayer, Phm 1:4–6. we have—Greek, “we had.” joy and consolation—joined in 2 Co 7:4. saints are refreshed by thee—His house was open to them. brother—put last, to conciliate his favorable attention to the request which follows.
- 2 Deep feelings of gratitude are expressed for the personal character of Philemon. With great tact Paul emphasizes the impact of Philemon’s faith and love on the believers. We do not know what particular acts of benevolence the author has in mind. But Paul is about to request him to exert these same qualities in relation to his fugitive slave. He ends this statement of gratitude by calling him “brother” (v. 7).
The Plea for Onesimus
8 Therefore, though I might be very bold in Christ to command you what is fitting,
8. Wherefore—Because of my love to thee, I prefer to “beseech,” rather than “enjoin,” or authoritatively command. I might … enjoin—in virtue of the obligation to obedience which Philemon lay under to Paul, as having been converted through his instrumentality. in Christ—the element in which his boldness has place.
9 yet for love’s sake I rather appeal to you—being such a one as Paul, the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ—
9. for love’s sake—mine to thee, and (what ought to be) thine to Onesimus. Or, that Christian love of which thou showest so bright an example (Phm 1:7). being such an one—Explain, Being such a one as thou knowest me to be, namely, Paul—the founder of so many churches, and an apostle of Christ, and thy father in the faith. the aged—a circumstance calculated to secure thy respect for anything I request. and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ—the strongest claim I have on thy regard: if for no other reason, at least in consideration of this, through commiseration gratify me.
10 I appeal to you for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten while in my chains,
10. I beseech thee—emphatically repeated from Phm 1:9. In the Greek, the name “Onesimus” is skilfully put last, he puts first a favorable description of him before he mentions the name that had fallen into so bad repute with Philemon. “I beseech thee for my son, whom I have begotten in my bonds, Onesimus.” Scripture does not sanction slavery, but at the same time does not begin a political crusade against it. It sets forth principles of love to our fellow men which were sure (as they have done) in due time to undermine and overthrow it, without violently convulsing the then existing political fabric, by stirring up slaves against their masters.
11 who once was unprofitable to you, but now is profitable to you and to me.
11. Which … was … unprofitable—belying his name Onesimus, which means “profitable.” Not only was he “unprofitable,” but positively injurious, having “wronged” his master. Paul uses a mild expression. now profitable—Without godliness a man has no station. Profitable in spiritual, as well as in temporal things.
12 I am sending him back. You therefore receive him, that is, my own heart,
12. mine own bowels—as dear to me as my own heart [ALFORD]. Compare Phm 1:17, “as myself.” The object of my most intense affection as that of a parent for a child.
13 whom I wished to keep with me, that on your behalf he might minister to me in my chains for the gospel.
13. I—emphatical. I for my part. Since I had such implicit trust in him as to desire to keep him with me for his services, thou mayest. I would have retained—different Greek from the “would,” Phm 1:14, “I could have wished,” “I was minded” here; but “I was not willing,” Phm 1:14. in thy stead—that he might supply in your place all the services to me which you, if you were here, would render in virtue of the love you bear to me (Phm 1:19). bonds of the gospel—my bonds endured for the Gospel’s sake (Phm 1:9).
14 But without your consent I wanted to do nothing, that your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary.
14. without thy mind—that is, consent. should not be as—“should not appear as a matter of necessity, but of free will.” Had Paul kept Onesimus, however willing to gratify Paul Philemon might be, he would have no opportunity given him of showing he was so, his leave not having been asked.
15 For perhaps he departed for a while for this purpose, that you might receive him forever,
15. perhaps—speaking in human fashion, yet as one believing that God’s Providence probably (for we cannot dogmatically define the hidden purposes of God in providence) overruled the past evil to ultimately greater good to him. This thought would soften Philemon’s indignation at Onesimus’ past offense. So Joseph in Ge 45:5. departed—literally, “was parted from thee”; a softening term for “ran away,” to mitigate Philemon’s wrath. receive him—Greek, “have him for thyself in full possession” (see on Php 4:18). The same Greek as in Mt 6:2. for ever—in this life and in that to come (compare Ex 21:6). Onesimus’ time of absence, however long, was but a short “hour” (so Greek) compared with the everlasting devotion henceforth binding him to his master.
16 no longer as a slave but more than a slave—a beloved brother, especially to me but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord.
16. No longer as a mere servant or slave (though still he is that), but above a servant, so that thou shalt derive from him not merely the services of a slave, but higher benefits: a servant “in the flesh,” he is a brother “in the Lord.” beloved, specially to me—who am his spiritual father, and who have experienced his faithful attentions. Lest Philemon should dislike Onesimus being called “brother,” Paul first recognizes him as a brother, being the spiritual son of the same God. much more unto thee—to whom he stands in so much nearer and more lasting relation.
- 2 This part of the letter is carefully worded and full of diplomatic and subtle appeals on behalf of Onesimus. In Rome the runaway had somehow come in contact with Paul, the friend of his master. This encounter led to the conversion of Onesimus and a change in his life. The name Onesimus means “profitable” or “useful.” Paul says he is now living up to his name.
Paul values him so much that he would have kept him in Rome as an assistant. But both Roman law and Christian conscience demanded that Onesimus return to his master and correct all wrongs. Apparently he had stolen something (v. 18). Paul inserts his signature as an IOU (v. 19). Paul himself will stand good for any material loss. Philemon is reminded, however, that he is in debt to Paul in a spiritual sense.
Paul expresses the confidence that Philemon will not only forgive him and receive him as a brother, but that he will go even beyond this. Paul does not spell this out. Did he mean to suggest that Philemon set Onesimus free? Or let him return to Rome to assist Paul? We do not know. He leaves it to the noble spirit of Philemon to do what seems appropriate. Paul expects to see the results for himself, however. He anticipates being freed from prison and visiting in Colossae (v. 22).
Special point.—Paul certainly was not blind to the evils of slavery. At this stage of development among the scattered churches, the most effective change the Christians could make on a slave-holding society was to witness to the transforming power of Christian love. Apparently Philemon followed Paul’s suggestions regarding Onesimus. There is evidence in early church history that Onesimus became the leader of the Christian movement in Ephesus and brought together the first collection of Paul’s writings.
Philemon’s Obedience Encouraged
17 If then you count me as a partner, receive him as you would me.
17. a partner—in the Christian fellowship of faith, hope, and love. receive him as myself—resuming “receive him that is mine own bowels.”
18 But if he has wronged you or owes anything, put that on my account.
18. Greek, “But it (thou art not inclined to ‘receive him’ because) he hath wronged thee”; a milder term than “robbed thee.” Onesimus seems to have confessed some such act to Paul. put that on mine account—I am ready to make good the loss to thee if required. The latter parts of Phm 1:19, 21, imply that he did not expect Philemon would probably demand it.
19 I, Paul, am writing with my own hand. I will repay—not to mention to you that you owe me even your own self besides.
19. with mine own hand—not employing an amanuensis, as in other Epistles: a special compliment to Philemon which he ought to show his appreciation of by granting Paul’s request. Contrast Col 4:18, which shows that the Epistle to the Colossian Church, accompanying this Epistle, had only its closing “salutation” written by Paul’s own hand. albeit, &c.—literally, “that I may not say … not to say,” &c. thou owest … even thine own self—not merely thy possessions. For to my instrumentality thou owest thy salvation. So the debt which “he oweth thee” being transferred upon me (I making myself responsible for it) is cancelled.
20 Yes, brother, let me have joy from you in the Lord; refresh my heart in the Lord.
20. let me—“me” is emphatic: “Let me have profit (so Greek ‘for joy,’ onainen, referring to the name Onesimus, ‘profitable’) from thee, as thou shouldst have had from Onesimus”; for “thou owest thine ownself to me.” in the Lord—not in worldly gain, but in thine increase in the graces of the Lord’s Spirit [ALFORD]. my bowels—my heart. Gratify my feelings by granting this request. in the Lord—The oldest manuscripts read, “in Christ,” the element or sphere in which this act of Christian love naturally ought to have place.
21 Having confidence in your obedience, I write to you, knowing that you will do even more than I say.
21. Having confidence in thy obedience—to my apostolic authority, if I were to “enjoin” it (Phm 1:8), which I do not, preferring to beseech thee for it as a favor (Phm 1:9). thou will also do more—towards Onesimus: hinting at his possible manumission by Philemon, besides, being kindly received.
22 But, meanwhile, also prepare a guest room for me, for I trust that through your prayers I shall be granted to you.
22. This prospect of Paul’s visiting Colosse would tend to secure a kindly reception for Onesimus, as Paul would know in person how he had been treated. your … you—referring to Philemon, Apphia, Archippus, and the Church in Philemon’s house. The same expectation is expressed by him, Php 2:23, 24, written in the same imprisonment.
23 Epaphras, my fellow prisoner in Christ Jesus, greets you,
23. The same persons send salutations in the accompanying Epistle, except that “Jesus Justus” is not mentioned here. Epaphras, my fellow prisoner—He had been sent by the Colossian Church to inquire after, and minister to, Paul, and possibly was cast into prison by the Roman authorities on suspicion. However, he is not mentioned as a prisoner in Col 4:12, so that “fellow prisoner” here may mean merely one who was a faithful companion to Paul in his imprisonment, and by his society put himself in the position of a prisoner. So also “Aristarchus, my fellow prisoner,” Col 4:10, may mean. Benson conjectures the meaning to be that on some former occasion these two were Paul’s “fellow prisoners,” not at the time.
24 as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow laborers.
25 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.
25. be with your spirit—(Ga 6:18; 2 Ti 4:22).
- 2Those joining Paul in greetings from Rome are the same persons listed at the close of Colossians (4:10 f.). Paul’s customary benediction closes the letter.
B A C K G R O U N D
- 3 PHILEMON (Φιλήμων, Philēmōn). A “friend and fellow-worker” of Paul (Phlm 1), and the recipient of the New Testament letter that bears his name. He was an important member of the church at Colossae who was known for his hospitality, since the church met in his house (Phlm 2, 5–7). Apphia may have been his wife and Archippus his son (Phlm 2; Col 4:17). Onesimus—concerning whom Paul writes the Letter to Philemon—was his slave
H I S T O R I C A L A U T H E N T I C I T Y
6 The testimonies to its authenticity are—ORIGEN [Homily 19, on Jeremiah, vol. 1., p. 185, Edition Huetius], cites it as the letter of Paul to Philemon concerning Onesimus; TERTULLIAN [Against Marcion, 5.21]: “The brevity of this Epistle is the sole cause of its escaping the falsifying hands of Marcion.” EUSEBIUS [Ecclesiastical History, 3.25], mentions it among “the universally acknowledged Epistles of the canon”; JEROME [Commentary on Philemon, vol. iv., p. 442], argues for it against those who objected to its canonicity on the ground of its subject being beneath an apostle to write about. IGNATIUS [Epistle to the Ephesians, 2; Epistle to the Magnesians, 12], seems to allude to Phm 1:20. Compare Epistle to Polycarp [1 and 6]. Its brevity is the cause of its not being often quoted by the Fathers. PALEY [Horae Paulinae], has shown striking proofs of its authenticity in the undesigned coincidences between it and the Epistle to the Colossians.
PLACE AND TIME OF WRITING.—This Epistle is closely linked with the Epistle to the Colossians. Both were carried by the same bearer, Onesimus (with whom, however, Tychicus is joined in the Epistle to the Colossians), Col 4:9. The persons sending salutations are the same, except one, Jesus called Justus (Col 4:11). In both alike Archippus is addressed (Phm 2:2; Col 4:17). Paul and Timothy stand in the headings of both. And in both Paul appears as a prisoner (Phm 2:9 Col 4:18). Hence it follows, it was written at the same time and place as the Epistle to the Colossians (which was about the same time as the Epistle to the Ephesians), namely, at Rome, during Paul’s first imprisonment, A.D. 61 or 62.
O V E R V I E W
4 ONESIMUS, servant of Philemon, an eminent person in Colosse, ran away from his master to Rome. Here he was converted to Christianity by St. Paul, who sent him back to his master with this letter. It seems Philemon not only pardoned, but gave him his liberty; seeing Ignatius makes mention of him, as succeeding Timotheus at Ephesus.
4 This single epistle infinitely transcends all the wisdom of the world. And it gives us a specimen, how Christians ought to treat of secular affairs from higher principles. Paul, a prisoner of Christ—To whom, as such, Philemon could deny nothing, and Timotheus—This was written before the second epistle to Timothy, (ver. 22.)
2 This is a personal letter to an old friend. It is not directed to a church. No attempts are made at doctrinal exposition. The main concern is a private matter. Paul’s correspondence with Timothy and Titus includes some general matters for the churches under their care. This note is for one man, Philemon. It is surprising that an item of such restricted nature—and such a short one—should be included in the books of the New Testament. Yet, it is a priceless example of what the gospel was doing in the pagan setting of the Graeco-Roman world. It is prime evidence of the power of the Christian gospel to break down barriers among men.
The three main personalities are an unlikely trio in the Mediterranean world of the first century. An ex-rabbi to whom non-Jews were once disdained! A Gentile of wealth who normally would have scorned a wandering Jewish teacher and who, by all standards of the time, might have been expected to deal brutally with a runaway slave! A forlorn servant and confessed thief without rights and, under ordinary circumstances, without hope of compassion! An impossible triangle for brotherhood and love. Nevertheless, the gospel of Jesus Christ turned all three in new directions and meshed their lives in a classic instance of reconciliation.
Author: the apostle Paul.
Central message: Christian love adds new dimensions to all human relationships.
Purpose: to encourage Philemon to be reconciled with Onesimus as a brother in Christ.
Audience: the aggrieved slave owner, Philemon.
Key verse: “So, if you think of me as your partner, welcome him back just as you would welcome me” (v. 17, TEV).
Occasion: Onesimus becomes a Christian under Paul’s influence. He voluntarily returns to his master for restitution and recompense. He accompanies Tychicus who is also delivering Paul’s letters to the Ephesians and Colossians.
Date: A.D. 58–60, during Paul’s first Roman imprisonment.
In addition to the appeal from personal friendship, Paul claims a hearing because of his sufferings as a prisoner for Christ. Timothy is identified with him, as in the letter to Colossae. Apphia is unknown. She may have been Philemon’s wife. Archippus is mentioned in Colossians 4:17. He may have been the leader of the church which was meeting in Philemon’s house, or possibly Philemon’s son.
5 Paul rejoices to hear of the faith and love of Philemon, whom he desires to forgive his servant Onesimus, and lovingly to receive him again.
1 a prisoner. ver. 9. See on Ep. 3:1; 4:1; 6:20. 2 Ti. 1:8. Timothy. See on 2 Co. 1:1. Col. 1:1. 2 Th. 1:1. Philemon. The apostle in this epistle indulges in some fine paronomasias on the proper names. Thus Philemon, Φιλημον, affectionate, or beloved, is ‘our dearly beloved;’ Apphia, (Απφια, from απφα, the affectionate address of a brother or sister, according to SUIDAS,) is ‘the beloved sister,’ as several MSS., Vulgate, and others correctly read; Archippus, (Αρχιππος, the ruler of the horse, for the managing of which heroes were anciently famous,) is ‘our fellow-soldier;’ and Onesimus, (Ονησιμος, useful or profitable,) once unprofitable, is now profitable. and fellow-labourer. ver. 24. 1 Co. 3:9. Phi. 2:25; 4:3. Col. 4:11. 1 Th. 3:2.
2 Archippus. Col. 4:17. our fellow-soldier. Phi. 2:25. 2 Ti. 2:3, 4. the church. Ro. 16:5. 1 Co. 16:19. Col. 4:15.
3 See on Ro. 1:7. 2 Co. 13:14. Ep. 1:2.
4 Ro. 1:8. Ep. 1:16. Phi. 1:3. Col. 1:3. 1 Th. 1:2. 2 Th. 1:3. 2 Ti. 1:3.
5 Hearing. Ga. 5:6. Ep. 1:15. Col. 1:4. toward the Lord. ver. 7. Ps. 16:3. Ac. 9:39–41. Ro. 12:13; 15:25, 26. 1 Co. 16:1. 1 Jno. 3:23; 5:1, 2.
6 the communication. 2 Co. 9:12–14. Phi. 1:9–11. Tit. 3:14. He. 6:10. Ja. 2:14, 17. the acknowledging. Mat. 5:16. 1 Co. 14:25. Phi. 4:8. 1 Pe. 1:5–8; 2:12; 3:1, 16. in you. 2 Pe. 1:8.
7 great joy. 1 Th. 1:3; 2:13, 19; 3:9. 2 Jno. 4. 3 Jno. 3–6. the bowels. ver. 20. 2 Co. 7:13. 2 Ti. 1:16.
8 bold. 2 Co. 3:12; 10:1, 2; 11:21. 1 Th. 2:2, 6. enjoin. 2 Co. 10:8.
9 love’s sake. Ro. 12:1. 2 Co. 5:20; 6:1. Ep. 4:1. He. 13:19. 1 Pe. 2:11. Paul. Ps. 71:9, 18. Pr. 16:31. Is. 46:4. a prisoner. ver. 1. Eph. 3:1; 4:1.
10 my son. 2 Sa. 9:1–7; 18:5; 19:37, 38. Mar. 9:17. 1 Ti. 1:2. Tit. 1:4. Onesimus. Col. 4:9. whom. 1 Co. 4:15. Ga. 4:19.
11 unprofitable. Job 30:1, 2. Mat. 25:30. Lu. 17:10. Ro. 3:12. 1 Pe. 2:10. profitable. Lu. 15:24, 32. 2 Ti. 4:11.
12 thou. Mat. 6:14, 15; 18:21–35. Mar. 11:25. Ep. 4:32. mine. De. 13:6. 2 Sa. 16:11. Je. 31:20. Lu. 15:20.
13 in thy stead. 1 Co. 16:17. Phi. 2:30. the bonds. ver. 1. Ep. 3:1; 4:1.
14 without. ver. 8, 9. 2 Co. 1:24. 1 Pe. 5:3. thy benefit. 1 Ch. 29:17. Ps. 110:3. 1 Co. 9:7, 17. 2 Co. 8:12; 9:5, 7. 1 Pe. 5:2.
15 Ge. 45:5–8; 50:20. Ps. 76:10. Is. 20:7. Ac. 4:28.
16 a brother. Mat. 23:8. Ac. 9:17. Ga. 4:28, 29. 1 Ti. 6:2. He. 3:1. 1 Pe. 1:22, 23. 1 Jno. 5:1. both in. Ep. 6:5–7. Col. 3:22.
17 thou count. Ac. 16:15. 2 Co. 8:23. Ep. 3:6. Phi. 1:7. 1 Ti. 6:2. He. 3:1, 14. Ja. 2:5. 1 Pe. 5:1. 1 Jno. 1:3. receive. ver. 10, 12. Mat. 10:40; 12:48–50; 18:5; 25:40.
18 put that. Is. 53:4–7. Heb.
19 I Paul. 1 Co. 16:21, 22. Ga. 5:2; 6:11. how thou. 1 Co. 4:15; 9:1, 2. 2 Co. 3:2. 1 Ti. 1:2. Tit. 1:4. Ja. 5:19, 20.
20 let me. 2 Co. 2:2; 7:4–7, 13. Phi. 2:2; 4:1. 1 Th. 2:19, 20; 3:7–9. He. 13:17. 3 Jno. 4. refresh. ver. 7, 12. Phi. 1:8; 2:1. 1 Jno. 3:17.
21 2 Co. 2:3; 7:16; 8:22. Ga. 5:10. 2 Th. 3:4.
22 prepare. Ac. 28:23. for I trust. Ro. 15:24. Phi. 1:25, 26; 2:24. He. 13:23. 2 Jno. 12. 3 Jno. 14. through. Ro. 15:30–32. 2 Co. 1:11. Phi. 1:19. Ja. 5:16.
23 Epaphras. Col. 1:7; 4:12. my fellow-prisoner. Ro. 16:7. Col. 4:10.
24 Marcus. Ac. 12:12, 25; 13:13; 15:37–39. Col. 4:10. 2 Ti. 4:11. Aristarchus. Ac. 19:29; 27:2. Demas. Col. 4:14. 2 Ti. 4:10. Lucas. 2 Ti. 4:11. my fellow-labourers. ver. 1, 2. 2 Co. 8:23. Phi. 2:25; 4:3. 3 Jno. 8.
25 grace. See on Ro. 16:20, 24. your spirit. 2 Ti. 4:22.
R E F E R E N C E S
(1) The New King James Version. (1982). (Phm 1–25). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
(2) Fields, W. C. (1972). Philemon. In H. F. Paschall & H. H. Hobbs (Eds.), The teacher’s Bible commentary (p. 772). Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers.
(3) Major Contributors and Editors. (2016). Philemon. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, … W. Widder (Eds.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.
(4) Wesley, J. (1818). Explanatory Notes upon the New Testament (Fourth American Edition, p. 582). New York: J. Soule and T. Mason.
(5) Blayney, B., Scott, T., & Torrey, R. A. with Canne, J., Browne. (n.d.). The Treasury of Scripture knowledge (Vol. 2, p. 157). London: Samuel Bagster and Sons.
(6) Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. (1997). Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Vol. 2, pp. 436–437). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.